K to 12 Senior High School Core Curriculum – Physical Science Curriculum Guide

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Published on 2018 September 25th

This material is a curriculum guide of K to 12 Senior High School Core Curriculum – Physical Science

Curriculum Information

K to 12
Grade 11, Grade 12
How the elements found in the universe were formed How the idea of the atom, along with the idea of the elements evolved How the properties of matter relate to their chemical structure How chemical changes take place How chemistry contributes to the understanding of household and personal care products How we come to realize that the Earth is not the center of the Universe. Why we believe that the laws of physics are universal How light acts as a wave and a particle How physics helps us understand the Cosmos
Give evidence for and explain
the formation of the light
elements in the big bang
(3 hours) .give evidence for and describe
the formation of heavier
elements during star
formation and evolution Write the nuclear fusion
reactions that take place in
stars, which lead to the
formation of new elements Describe how elements
heavier than iron are formed Describe how elements
heavier than iron are formed Describe the ideas of the
ancient greeks on the atom Describe the ideas of the
ancient greeks on the
(2 hours) Describe the contributions of
the alchemists to the science
of chemistry Point out the main ideas in the
discovery of the structure of
the atom and its subatomic
(3 hours) Cite the contributions of j.j.
thomson, ernest rutherford,
henry moseley, and niels bohr
to the understanding of the
structure of the atom Describe the nuclear model of
the atom and the location of
its major components
(protons, neutrons, and electrons ) Explain how the concept of
atomic number led to the
synthesis of new elements in
the laboratory Write the nuclear reactions
involved in the synthesis of new elements . cite the contribution of john
dalton toward the
understanding of the concept
of the chemical elements Explain how dalton’s theory
contributed to the discovery of
other elements Determine if a molecule is
polar or non polar given its
(2 hours Relate the polarity of a
molecule to its properties Describe the general types of
intermolecular forces
(3 hours) Give the type of intermolecular
forces in the properties of
substances Explain the effect of
intermolecular forces on the
properties of substances Explain how the uses of the
following materials depend on
their properties:
a. medical implants, prosthesis
b. sports equipment
c. electronic devices
d. construction supplies for
buildings and furniture
e. household gadgets Explain how the properties of
the above materials are
determined by their structure Explain how the structures of
biological macromolecules
such as carbohydrates, lipids,
nucleic acid, and proteins
determine their properties and functions Use simple collision theory to
explain the effects of
concentration, temperature,
and particle size on the rate of reaction Define catalyst and describe
how it affects reaction rate Calculate the amount of
substances used or produced
in a chemical reaction Calculate percent yield of a
(1 hour) Determine the limiting
reactant in a reaction and
calculate the amount of
product formed Recognize that energy is
released or absorbed during a
chemical reaction Describe how energy is
harnessed from different
a. fossil fuels
b. biogas
c. geothermal
d. hydrothermal
e. batteries
f. solar cells
g. biomass Give common examples of
cleaning materials for the
house and for personal care From product labels, identify
the active ingredient(s) of
cleaning products used at home Give the use of the other ingredients in cleaning agents Give common examples of
personal care products used
to enhance the appearance of
the human body Identify the major ingredients
of cosmetics such as body
lotion, skin whitener,
deodorants, shaving cream,
and and perfum Explain the precautionary
measures indicated in various
cleaning products and
cosmetics Explain what the greeks
considered to be the three
types of terrestrial motion Explain what is meant by
diurnal motion, annual motion,
precession of the equinoxes Explain how the greeks knew
that the earth is spherical Explain how plato’s problem of
“saving the appearances”
constrained greek models of
the universe Compare and contrast the
models/descriptions of the
universe by eudoxus, aristotle,
aristarchus, ptolemy, and
copernicus Cite examples of astronomical
phenomena known to
astronomers before the
advent of telescopes Compare and contrast
explanations and models of
astronomical phenomena
(copernican, ptolemaic, and
tychonic) Explain how galileo’s
astronomical discoveries and
observations (lunar craters,
phases of venus, moons of
jupiter, sun spots,
supernovas, the apparently
identical size of stars as seen
through the naked eye, and
telescope observations)
helped weaken the support for
the ptolemaic model. Explain how brahe’s
innovations and extensive
collection of data in
observational astronomy
paved the way for kepler’s
discovery of his laws of
planetary motion Aapply kepler’s 3rd law of
planetary motion to objects in
the solar system Compare and contrast the
aristotelian and galilean
conceptions of vertical
motion, horizontal motion, and
projectile motion. Explain how galileo inferred
that objects in vacuum fall
with uniform acceleration, and
that force is not necessary to
sustain horizontal motion Explain how the position vs.
time, and velocity vs. time
graphs of constant velocity
motion are different from
those of constant acceleration
motion Recognize that the everyday
usage and the physics usage
of the term “acceleration”
differ: in physics an object
that is slowing down,
speeding up, or changing direction is said to be accelerating Explain each of newton’s
three laws of motion Explain the subtle distinction
between newton’s 1st law of
motion (or law of inertia) and
galileo’s assertion that force is
not necessary to sustain
horizontal motion Use algebra, newton’s 2nd
law of motion, and newton’s
law of universal gravitation to
show that, in the absence of
air resistance, objects close to
the surface of the earth fall
with identical accelerations
independent of their mass. Explain the statement
“newton's laws of motion are
axioms while kepler's laws of
planetary motion are empirical laws Explain the contributions of
scientists to our understanding
of mass, momentum, and
energy conservation Use the law of conservation of
momentum to solve onedimensional
collision problems Describe what happens when
light is reflected, refracted,
transmitted, and absorbed Explain how newton and
descartes described the
emergence of light in various
colors through prisms Cite examples of waves (e.g.,
water, stadium, sound, string,
and light waves) Describe how the propagation
of light, reflection, and
refraction are explained by the
wave model and the particle
model of light Explain how the photon theory
of light accounts for atomic
spectra Explain how the photon
concept and the fact that the
energy of a photon is directly
proportional to its frequency
can be used to explain why
red light is used in
photographic dark rooms, why
we get easily sunburned in
ultraviolet light but not in
visible light, and how we see
colors Apply the wavelength-speedfrequency
relation Describe how galileo and
roemer contributed to the
eventual acceptance of the
view that the speed of light is
finite Cite experimental evidence
showing that electrons can
behave like waves Differentiate dispersion,
scattering, interference, and
diffraction Explain various light
phenomena such as:
a. your reflection on the
concave and convex sides
of a spoon looks different
b. mirages
c. light from a red laser
passes more easily though
red cellophane than green
d. clothing of certain colors
appear different in
artificial light and in
e. haloes, sundogs, primary
rainbows, secondary
rainbows, and
supernumerary bows
f. why clouds are usually white and rainclouds dark
g. why the sky is blue and
sunsets are reddish Explain the contributions of
franklin, coulomb, oersted,
ampere, biot-savart, faraday,
and maxwell to our
understanding of electricity
and magnetism (3 hours) Describe how hertz produced
radio pulses Explain how special relativity
resolved the conflict between
newtonian mechanics and
maxwell’s electromagnetic
(3 hours) Explain the consequences of
the postulates of special
relativity (e.g., relativity of
simultaneity, time dilation,
length contraction, massenergy
equivalence, and
cosmic speed limit Explain the consequences of
the postulates of general
relativity (e.g., correct
predictions of shifts in the
orbit of mercury, gravitational
bending of light, and black
holes Explain how the speeds and
distances of far-off objects are
estimated (e.g., doppler effect
and cosmic distance ladder)
(2 hours) Explain how we know that we
live in an expanding universe,
which used to be hot and is
approximately 14billion years old Explain how doppler shifts
and transits can be used to
detect extra solar planets Explain why pluto was once
thought to be a planet but is
no longer considered one

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